Dr. Jeff Chang 

   psychologist   professor  supervisor  speaker   consultant  author

The Supervision Library

Administrative Supervision

Harris, S. M., Samford, B. A., Mehus, C. J., & Zubatsky, J. M. (2013). Challenges faced by MFTs in administrative or managerial positions. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 41:173–183. https:// doi: 10.1080/01926187.2012.677643

Krieder, H. D. (2014). Administrative and clinical supervision: The impact of dual roles on supervisee disclosure in counseling supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 33(2), 256-268.

Tromski-Klingshirn, D. M. (2006). Should the clinical supervisor be the administrative supervisor? The ethics versus the reality. The Clinical Supervisor, 25(1/2), 53-67. https://doi:10.1300/J001v25n01_05


Bradley, L. J., Lewis, J., Hendricks, B., & Crews, C. R. (2008). Advocacy: Implications for supervision training. (ACAPCD-13). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.


Chang, C. Y., Hays, D. G., & Millikin, T. F. (2009). Addressing social justice issues in supervision: A call for client and professional advocacy. The Clinical Supervisor, 28(1), 20-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07325220902855144

McGeorge, C. R., & Carlson, T. S. (2010). Social justice mentoring: Preparing family therapists for social justice advocacy work. Michigan Family Review, 14(1). Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.4919087.0014.106

Approaches to Supervision

Bernard, J. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19(1), 60-69.


Morgan, M. M. & Sprenkle, D. H. (2007). Toward a common-factors approach to supervision. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(1), 1–17 (read pp. 6-17).

Competency Profiles

Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (2016). Competency profile comparison. Ottawa, ON; Author.

Falender, C. A., Shafranske, E. P., & Ofek, A. (2014). Competent clinical supervision: Emerging effective practices. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 27(4), 393–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2014.934785


Ontario Psychological Association (2015). OPA self-assessment tool for best practices in clinical supervision. Toronto, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://www.psych.on.ca/OPA/media/opa-main/Board-Members/Quality-Assurance-Self-AssessmentFinal.pdf?ext=.pdf


Roth, A. D., & Pilling, S. (2015).  A competence framework for the supervision of psychological therapies. Edinburgh: Care Services Improvement Partnership, NHS Education. Retrieved from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pals/research/cehp/research-groups/core/competence-frameworks/Supervision_of_Psychological_Therapies (Please review Generic Supervision Competencies and Metacompetencies).

Contracting/Informed Consent

Thomas, J. T. (2007). Informed consent through contracting for supervision: Minimizing risks, enhancing benefits. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(3), 221-231.

Culture-Infused Supervision

Arthur, N. & Collins, S. (2010). Culture-infused counselling supervision. In N. Pelling, J. Bartletta, & P. Armstrong (Eds.), The practice of clinical supervision (pp. 267 - 295). Bowen Hills, QLD: Australian Academic Press.

Definitions of Supervision

Chang, J. (2013). A contextual-functional meta-framework for counselling supervision. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 35(2), 71-87. doi: 10.1007/s10447-0129168-2


Falender, C. A., & Skafranske, E. P. (2004). Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association (Chapter 1).


Milne, D. (2007). An empirical definition of clinical supervision. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 437–447.

Developmental Approaches to Supervision

Auxier, C. R., Hughes, F. R., & Kline, W. B. (2003). Identity development in counselors-in-training. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43, 25-38.


Chagnon, J., & Russell, R. K. (1995). Assessment of supervisee developmental level and supervision environment across supervisor experience. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73, 553-558.


Forehand-Hughes, A., Holden, V., & Ramey, A. (2012). Developmental supervision. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/amberforehand/developmental-supervision.


Holloway, E. L. (1987). Developmental models of supervision: Is it development? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 18, 209-216.


Krause, A. A., & Allen, G. J. (1988). Perceptions of counselor supervision: An examination of Stoltenberg’s model from the perspectives of supervisor and supervisee. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 77-80.


Reising, G. N., & Daniels, M. H. (1983). A study of Hogan’s model of counselor development and supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 30, 235-244.


Rønnestad, M. H., & Skovholt, T. M. (2003). The journey of the counselor and therapist: Research findings and perspectives on professional development. Journal of Career Development, 30(1), 5-44.

Rønnestad, M. H., & Skovholt, T. M. (1993). Supervision of beginning and advanced graduate students of counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 396-405.


Skovholt, T. M., & Rønnestad, M. H. (2003). Struggles of the novice counselor and therapist. Journal of Career Development, 30(1), 45-58.


Stoltenberg, C. D. (2008). Developmental approaches to supervision. In C. A. Falender, & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (pp. 39-56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Entry to Practice Competency Profiles
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (2004). Marriage and family therapy core competencies. Alexandria, VA: Author.


College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario (2012). Entry-to-practice competency profile for Registered Psychotherapists. Toronto, ON: Author.


Federation of Associated Counselling Therapists in British Columbia (2016). Updated entry-to-practice competency profile for counselling therapists. Vancouver, BC: Author.

National Association of School Psychologists (2010). Standards for the credentialing of school psychologists. Bethesda, MD: Author.

Fouad, N. A., Grus, C. L., Hatcher, R. L.,… & Crossman, R. E. (2009). Competency benchmarks: A model for understanding and measuring competence in professional psychology across training levels. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4), S5–S26.


Barnett, J. E., & Molzon, C. H. (2014). Clinical supervision of psychotherapy: Essential ethics issues for supervisors and supervisees. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 70(11), 1051-1061. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22126


Behnke, S. (2008). Reflections on training ethical psychologists. Monitor on Psychology, 39(1) retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan08/ethics.aspx


Haug, I. E., & Storm, C. L. (2014). Developing ethical decision-making in systemic supervision. In T. C. Todd & C. L. Storm, The complete systemic supervisor: Context, philosophy, and pragmatics (2nd ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.



Gonsalves, C. J. (2014). Establishing supervision goals and formalizing a supervision agreement: A competency-based approach. In C. Edward Watkins, Jr. & D. L. Milne (Eds.), The Wiley International handbook of clinical supervision (pp. 282-307). London, UK. John Wiley & Sons.

Harmful Supervision

Gray, L. A., Ladany, N., Ancis, J. R., & Walker, J. A. (2001). Psychotherapy trainees' experience of counterproductive events in supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology,48 (4), 371-383.

McNamara, M. L., Kangos, K. A., Corp, D., A., Ellis, M. V., & Taylor, E. J. (2017). Narratives of harmful clinical supervision: Synthesis and


Psychotherapy-Based Approaches to Supervision

Aten, J. D., & Strain, J. D. (2008). A transtheoretical model of clinical supervision. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 2(1), 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1037/1931-3918.2.1.1

Beck, J. S., Sarnat, J. E., & Barenstein, V. (2009). Psychotherapy-based approaches to supervision. In C. Falender & P. Shafranske (Eds.), Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency‐based approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Boswell, J. F., Nelson, D. L., Nordberg, S. S., McAleavey, A. A, & Castonguay, L. G., (2010). Competency in integrative psychotherapy: Perspectives on training and supervision. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 3-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018849

Celano, M. P., Smith, C. O., & Kaslow, N. J. (2010). A competency-based approach to couple and family therapy supervision. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 35-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018845

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2010). Psychotherapy-based supervision models in an emerging competency-based era: A commentary. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 45–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018873

Farber, E. W.  (2010). Humanistic–existential psychotherapy competencies and the supervisory process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 28-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018847

Neuger, C. C. (2015). Narrative therapy and supervision. Reflective Practice: Formation and Supervision in Ministry, 35. Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/rpfs/index.php/rpfs/article/view/382/374

Newman, C. F. (2010). Competency in conducting cognitive–behavioral therapy: Foundational, functional, and supervisory aspects. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 12-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018849

Patterson, C. H. (1983). A client-centered approach to supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 11, 21-26.

Pearson, Q. M. (2006). Psychotherapy-driven supervision: Integrating counseling theories into role-based supervision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 28(3), 241-252.

Sarnat, J. (2010). Key competencies of the psychodynamic psychotherapist and how to teach them in supervision. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 20-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018846

Thomas, F. N. (1996). Solution-focused supervision: The coaxing of expertise. In S. D. Miller, M. A. Hubble, & B. L. Duncan (Eds.), Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wessler, R. L., & Ellis, A. (1983). Supervision in counseling: Rational-emotive therapy. The Counseling Psychologist, 11, 43-50.

Skill Development and Practice

Chow, D. & Miller, S. D. (2016). Taxonomy of deliberate practice activities in psychotherapy: Supervisor’s version (Version 4). Chicago, IL: International Center for Clinical Excellence.

Chow, D. & Miller, S. D. (2016). Taxonomy of deliberate practice activities in psychotherapy: Therapist version (Version 4). Chicago, IL: International Center for Clinical Excellence.


Rousmaniere, T. (2016). Deliberate practice for early career psychotherapists. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 51(3), 25-29.

Tomm, K. M., & Wright, L. M. (1979). Training in family therapy: Perceptual, conceptual, and executive skills. Family Process, 18, 227-250.

Supervisory Working Alliance, Rupture, and Repair

Beinart, H. (2014). Building and sustaining the supervisory relationship. In. C. E. Watkins, Jr. & D. L. Milne (Eds.), The Wiley international handbook of clinical supervision (pp. 257-281). Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell.


Chang, J., & Gaete, J. (2013). IP-supervision as relationally responsive practice. In K. Tomm, D. Wulff, S. St. George, & T. Strong (Eds.), Patterns in interpersonal interactions: Inviting relational understandings for therapeutic change (pp. 187-209). New York: Routledge.

Farber, B. A., & Hazanov, V. (2014) Informal sources of supervision in clinical training. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 70(11), 1062–1072.


Mehr, K. E., Ladany, N., & Caskie, G. I. L. (2010). Trainee nondisclosure in supervision: What are they not telling you? Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 10(2), 103-113.

Watkins, Jr., C. E., Hook, J. N., Ramaeker, J., & Ramos, M. (2016). Repairing the ruptured supervisory alliance: Humility as a foundational virtue in clinical supervision. Clinical Supervisor, 35(1), 22-41. doi: 10.1080/07325223.2015.1127190.


Watkins, Jr., C. E., Reyna, S, H., Ramos, M. J., & Hook, J. N. (2015). The ruptured supervisory alliance and its repair: On supervisor apology as a reparative intervention. Clinical Supervisor, 34(1), 98-114. doi: 10.1080/07325223.2015.1015194

Theoretical Development

Ellis, M. V., Hutman, H., & Deihl, L. M. (2013). Chalkboard case conceptualization: A method for integrating clinical data. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7(4), 246-256.


Hrovat, A., & Luke, M. (2016). Is the personal theoretical: An analysis of student theory journals. Journal of Counselor Preparation & Supervision, 8(1), 49-77. doi: 10.7729/81.1084.


Lebow, J. L. (1987). Developing a personal integration in family therapy: Principles for model construction and practice personal integration. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 13(1), 1-14.


Spruill, D. A., & Benshoff, J. M. (2000). Helping beginning counselors develop a personal theory of counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(1), 70–80. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2000.tb01800.